Enviornmental Impact Assessment (E I A) is as a process of evaluation of likely environmental impact of a proposed
project and the interrelated aspects of socio-economic, cultural, environment and human health impacts due to the development process. Amar Singh Yadav
explains what is environment impact assessment, its relevance and the process of environment clearance.
Enviornment Impact Assessment (EIA) may be defined as a process of evaluation of likely environment impact for a proposed development. It connects the interrelated aspects of socio economic, cultural, environment and human health impacts due to the development process.
As per the definition of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), EIA is a tool to identify environmental, social and economic impacts of a project before the final decision to proceed with the project.
An early stage impact prediction provides inputs for the decision makers to reduce the adverse impacts and helps the same in shaping better design and planning for the project/s to suit the socio-economic and environmental conditions of the local stakeholders. Better design and planning helps in cost reduction as well as timely project implementation.
The EIA studies are conducted as per the various legislations and practices followed around the world. Basically the fundamental component of an EIA report may be involved as:
To define the basic requirement for conducting an EIA study
To check the possible potential impacts which are relevant to assess as per the guidelines, international conventions and public involvement, to identify methods to avoid, mitigate or compensate ill impacts on biodiversity and find alternative designs or sites to nullify or minimize the adverse impacts and finally to define the terms of references for the impact assessment
Conduct Impact Assessment
To predict, identify and elaborate on the likely environmental impacts of a proposed development project including the alternatives as well
To report the whole assessment based on the impact study as per the terms of references in scoping process including the Environment Management Plan (EMP) and public opinions on the proposed project undertaking all the twelve functional areas as mentioned below
Review and Decision Making
To review the assessment as per the terms of reference and public consultation, decide on the feasibility of the project and likelihood conditions
Monitoring, compliance and environment auditing
To monitor the impacts and proposed measures to mitigate the adverse impacts if any, Check the compliance as per the conditions, verify whether the conditions are complied by the proponent and address the critical compliance measures
Steps or scope for conducting an EIA Study and obtain Environment Clearance for the proposed development project as per the Ministry of Environment Forest & Climate Change (MoEF&CC), Government of India may be exhibited as under:
Functional Areas for conducting EIA Study
- Preparation and Submission of Application Forms & Prefeasibility Report for a proposed development project
- Preparation and Submission of Proposal for Terms of Reference to conduct the EIA Study
- Environment Monitoring for one season (3 months as per the definition of Indian Meteorological Department (IMD))
- Preparation and Submission of draft EIA-EMP Report
- Conducting Public Hearing process
- Incorporate the Public Hearing proceedings in the draft EIA Report
- Preparation and submission of Final EIA Report to the concerned authority
- Final EIA-EMP Presentation to the concerned authority
- Environment Clearance
Amar Singh Yadav