Enviornmental Impact Assessment (E I A) is as a process of evaluation of likely environmental impact of a proposed
project and the interrelated aspects of socio-economic, cultural, environment and human health impacts due to the development process. Amar Singh Yadav
explains what is environment impact assessment, its relevance and the process of environment clearance.

Enviornment Impact Assessment (EIA) may be defined as a pro­cess of evaluation of likely envi­ronment impact for a proposed development. It connects the in­terrelated aspects of socio eco­nomic, cultural, environment and human health impacts due to the development process.


As per the definition of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), EIA is a tool to identify environmental, social and economic impacts of a project before the final deci­sion to proceed with the project.

An early stage impact prediction provides inputs for the decision makers to reduce the adverse impacts and helps the same in shaping better design and planning for the project/s to suit the socio-economic and environmental conditions of the local stake­holders. Better design and planning helps in cost reduction as well as timely project implementation.


The EIA studies are conducted as per the various legislations and practic­es followed around the world. Basi­cally the fundamental component of an EIA report may be involved as:


To define the basic requirement for conducting an EIA study


To check the possible potential impacts which are relevant to assess as per the guidelines, international conventions and public involvement, to identify methods to avoid, mitigate or compensate ill impacts on biodiver­sity and find alternative designs or sites to nullify or minimize the adverse im­pacts and finally to define the terms of references for the impact assessment

Conduct Impact Assessment

To predict, identify and elaborate on the likely environmental impacts of a proposed development project including the alternatives as well


To report the whole assessment based on the impact study as per the terms of references in scoping process including the Environment Management Plan (EMP) and public opinions on the proposed proj­ect undertaking all the twelve functional areas as mentioned below

Review and Decision Making

To review the assessment as per the terms of reference and public con­sultation, decide on the feasibility of the project and likelihood conditions

Monitoring, compliance and environment auditing

To monitor the impacts and proposed measures to mitigate the adverse impacts if any, Check the compliance as per the con­ditions, verify whether the conditions are complied by the pro­ponent and address the critical compliance measures

Steps or scope for conducting an EIA Study and obtain Environment Clear­ance for the proposed development project as per the Ministry of Environment Forest & Climate Change (MoEF&CC), Government of India may be exhibited as under:

Functional Areas for conducting EIA Study


  • Preparation and Submission of Application Forms & Prefeasibility Report for a proposed development project
  • Preparation and Submission of Proposal for Terms of Reference to con­duct the EIA Study
  • Environment Monitoring for one season (3 months as per the definition of Indian Meteorological Department (IMD))
  • Preparation and Submission of draft EIA-EMP Report
  • Conducting Public Hearing process
  • Incorporate the Public Hearing proceedings in the draft EIA Report
  • Preparation and submission of Final EIA Report to the concerned au­thority
  • Final EIA-EMP Presentation to the concerned authority
  • Environment Clearance


Amar Singh Yadav


Stefan Jungcurt,

UNEP Releases Guide on Environmental Assessment Frameworks

What is Impact Assessment?

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